Phytochemical, spectroscopic and aphrodisiac studies of seed extract of Carapa procera D.C (Meliaceae) in male rodents
Keywords:Carapa procera, Aphrodisiac, Hormonal profile, Sexual indices
Background: Carapa procera DC Meliaceae seed is used in ethnomedicine to treat malaria and stem bark is utilized in management of male erectile dysfunction. The aim of the study is to assess the seed extract potentials in enhancing male sexual indices in male wistar albino rats.
Method: The dried seed (1505 g) was extracted successively using 5L each of n-Hexane, dichloromethane and 70% methanol for 7 days and concentrated in vacuo while the crude extract was obtained by extracting about 352 g using 70% methanol. The crude extract was administered at 86.60, 173.21 and 259.81 mg/kg/day while the fractions (173.21 mg/kg/day) to the male wistar rats for 7 days, testosterone and distilled water were used as positive and negative control. The sexual indices; Mount Latency (ML), Mount Frequency (MF), Intromission Latency (IL), Intromission Frequency (IF), Ejaculation Latency (EL) Post Ejaculatory Interval (PEI), Erection Frequency (EF), and Penile Erection (PE) were assessed.
Result: Phytochemical analysis and photochemical parameters showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrate, flavonoids, saponins and terpenes while anthraquinones, coumarins and tannins were absence. Elemental analysis revealed the presence of Na, K, Mg, Ca, P, Cr, Zn, Fe, while Pb, As, B, Cd, Se, Cu and Hg are below the minimum detectable level. Aphrodisiac appraisal revealed that high dose crude extract (HDCs), Dichloromethane fraction (DCMs), and Standard drug; Testosterone (STD) potentiate the testosterone level at p<0.05-0.001.The HDCs also potentiate Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), at p<0.05. The LDCs, MDCs, MTOs and MTs fraction significantly reduced ejaculation latency at p<0.05-0.01 due to increase in the sensitivity of the penile organ and significantly decreased PEI at p< 0.05-0.01. These could be due to the presence of phytochemicals as revealed by the GC-MS analysis such as Vitamin E, Lupenone, Cyclolanost-23-ene-3,25-diol, Olean-12-ene-3-one, tetrahydrofuranoandrostone and fatty acids.
Conclusion: This study confirms the potentials of C. procera seeds as aphrodisiac agents.
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