Effect of ritonavir/lopinavir on the efficacy of chloroquine and artemether/lumefantrine in mice
Keywords:Artemether-lumefantrine, chloroquine, drug-drug interaction, lopinavir-ritonavir, Plasmodium berghei
Background: Malaria co-infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is common and its pharmacotherapy combines antiretroviral with antimalarial drugs, hence drug-drug interaction is inevitable. This study reports the effect of an antiretroviral drug, lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) on the antimalarial activity of artemether/lumefantrine (AL) and chloroquine (CQ) in a mouse model of Plasmodium berghei.
Methodology: The standard procedures of prophylactic, suppressive and curative antiplasmodial assay models were adopted. The mice were divided into 6 groups of 5 mice each and 10 mg/kg, 6 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg body weight of CQ, LPV/r and AL were administered to groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The same dose of LPV/r and CQ was administered to group 4 concurrently, while group 5 received a similar dose of LPV/r and AL, concurrently. The mice in group 6 served as negative control.
Result: The study revealed that the co-administration of LPV/r with CQ and AL did not affect the suppressive antiplasmodial effect of CQ but boosted the parasite clearance of AL by 17.78 %. In the prophylactic test, the co-administration of LPV/r with CQ and AL also boosted the parasite clearance of CQ by 18.04 % and slightly boosted the parasite clearance of AL by 3.14 %. However, there was no significant effect of LPV/r on CQ and AL in the curative study.
Conclusion: Therefore, concurrent administration of LPV/r with AL and CQ affects mostly the suppressive and prophylactic effectiveness of AL and CQ, respectively.
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